HTTP status codes might not be meaningful to the average website visitor but are king in SEO. Search engine crawlers, like Googlebot, rely on these status codes to assess a website's health.
These codes provide a means of understanding the communication between a web browser and the server. While some codes indicate errors, such as the inability to find requested content, others signify the successful delivery of the requested information.
This article delves into the most critical HTTP status codes and their implications for SEO.
Understanding HTTP Status Codes and Their Purpose
An HTTP status code is a three-digit message the server sends when a browser's request can or cannot be fulfilled. According to the official W3C specifications, there are numerous status codes, many of which are rarely encountered.
If you require a concise overview of status codes, including their code references, you can find one at HTTPstatuses.com.
To grasp the significance of these codes, it's essential to comprehend how a browser initiates a web page request. The process works as follows:
The process commences with a user typing a site's URL or entering a search term in a search engine.
The browser solicits the site's IP address corresponding to the intended web page.
The server then responds with an HTTP header embedded with a status code, conveying the outcome of the request.
In instances where everything proceeds smoothly, an HTTP 200 header code, signifying success, is relayed to the browser along with the website's content.
However, there may be instances where the requested content or the server itself encounters issues. For example, a page may be missing, resulting in a 404 error page, or there could be a temporary technical problem with the server, resulting in a 500 Internal Server Error.
These HTTP status codes are pivotal in evaluating a site's health and server. Consistently transmitting improper HTTP header codes to a search engine tasked with indexing a website's contents can potentially lead to problems that harm its search engine rankings.
HTTP status codes are organized into five distinct ranges, each addressing different aspects of the client and server interaction. Here are the five ranges and their primary objectives:
1xx – Informational
2xx – Success
3xx – Redirection
4xx – Client error
5xx – Server error
For instance, if you ever attempt to brew coffee in a teapot, your teapot will likely respond with the status message 418: "I'm a teapot."
Crucial HTTP Status Codes for SEO
While the list of HTTP status codes is extensive, some regulations are significant for SEO practitioners and those managing their websites. Let's quickly review these essential codes.
200: OK / Success
This code signifies the desired scenario: a client requests content, and the server responds with a 200 success message, providing the necessary content. The server, the client, and the visitor are content. All 2xx status codes denote some form of success.
301: Moved Permanently
A 301 HTTP header is employed when a requested URL has permanently relocated to a new location. Frequent usage of this code is necessary when creating a 301 redirect, directing an old URL to a new one.
Neglecting to do so would result in users encountering a 404 error page when attempting to access the old URL, and utilizing a 301 redirect guarantees transferring the old URL's link value to the new URL.
A 302 code indicates that the target destination has been identified but resides in a different location. However, this status code is ambiguous since it doesn't specify whether the move is temporary.
Reserve a 302 redirect for situations where you intend to redirect a URL to an alternative source temporarily and are sure you will use the same URL again. It's important to note that since you indicated to search engines that the URL will be utilized, no link value is transferred to the new URL.
Therefore, refrain from using a 302 when making significant changes to your site structure or domain. Prolonged usage of 302 redirects may prompt search engines to treat them as 301 redirects.
304: Not Modified
A 304 redirect is a type of HTTP response code that indicates the requested resource has not been altered since its last access by the client. It implies that the server need not transmit the help again but should instruct the client to utilize a cached version.
The 304 response code serves to conserve the crawl budget for extensive websites. Google's crawler abstains from re-crawling unchanged pages, allowing it to focus on indexing fresh and updated content.
307: Temporary Redirect
The 307 code supersedes the 302 in HTTP 1.1 and is considered the sole 'true' redirect. You can employ a 307 redirect when temporarily rerouting a URL to a different location while retaining the original request method.
A 307 closely resembles a 302 but explicitly designates the URL as a temporary new address. The request may evolve, necessitating the client's continued use of the original URL for subsequent requests.
A 403 status code informs the browser that the requested content is inaccessible to the user unless they possess the appropriate login credentials. This content remains off-limits to users needing more requisite permissions.
404: Not Found
The 404 HTTP header code is also the most critical among the most visible status codes. When a server issues a 404 error, it signifies that the content in question has not been located and is likely deleted. It's advisable to rectify these errors promptly.
Implement redirects to guide users from the old URL to a new article or page featuring relevant content. Keep closely monitoring these 404 messages within Google Search Console, and strive to minimize them.
Google may perceive many 404 errors as a sign of inadequate maintenance, affecting overall rankings. If a page is defunct and should be removed from your site, a 410 gives Google a more precise signal.
A 410 status code yields the same outcome as a 404 since it implies the content's absence. However, a 410 informs search engines that the requested content has been permanently removed. Consequently, it offers greater specificity than a 404.
It instructs search engines to delete the URL from their indexes. Before deleting content from your site irrevocably, contemplate whether an equivalent page exists elsewhere. If so, implement a redirect; if not, consider retaining and enhancing the content.
451: Unavailable for Legal Reasons
The 451 HTTP status code communicates that the requested content has been removed due to legal reasons. If you've received a takedown request or a court order mandating the removal of specific content, this code should be employed to apprise search engines of the page's fate.
500: Internal Server Error
A 500 error is a general message indicating that the server encountered an unexpected condition preventing it from fulfilling the request without specifying the cause.
The source of such errors can vary, ranging from peculiarities with your web hosting to malfunctions in site scripts. It's advisable to scrutinize your server's logs to pinpoint the issue's root.
503: Service Unavailable
A 503 HTTP status code denotes a server-side error, indicating that the server can temporarily not process the request. This could arise due to overloading, maintenance, or other server-related problems.
If a 503 status code persists for an extended duration, it may signal to search engines that the site is unreliable or inaccessible. To avert adverse SEO repercussions, a 503 status code should only be employed for transient situations and must communicate a clear timeframe for the site's restoration.
The Retry-After value can suggest when crawlers should attempt to re-crawl the site.
Working with HTTP Status Codes
HTTP status codes constitute a significant component of SEO and the domain of search engine spiders. They are encountered regularly, and understanding the implications of various status codes is crucial.
For instance, when removing a page from your website, distinguishing between serving a 301 and a 410 redirect is essential, as they serve distinct purposes and yield different outcomes.
To gauge the kinds of status codes your website generates, it's recommended to access your Google Search Console. Within the Indexing section, you will discover crawl errors identified by Googlebot over a specific period.
Resolving these crawl errors is imperative for accurate indexing of your site. Familiarize yourself with these codes since they will frequently surface. Determining which redirects to employ is invaluable and will be often utilized while optimizing your website.
To Wrap Things Up
In exploring HTTP status codes and their role in SEO, we've uncovered the language servers use to talk to browsers and search engines. These three-digit messages are like the website's way of saying, "All good" (200 OK) or "Oops, not found" (404 Not Found).
Each code is vital for how search engines see and rank your site. So, when you visit a 301 Moved Permanently or a 503 Service Unavailable, it's not just tech talk; it's part of the web's way of communicating.
Check your Google Search Console, understand those crawl errors, and use these codes wisely to boost your website's online game. It's not just about SEO tricks; it's about making your site shine in the digital world. Happy optimizing!